ABSTRACTS

1. "Polution Modelling by
Using Monte Carlo Methods Based on Ray Tracing Principles

__Vassil Alexandrov__

Computer Science Department

University of Liverpool

Liverpool, United Kingdom

2. "Modeling of Global and
Regional Transport/Transformation of Air Pollutants"

__Artash E. Aloyan__

Institute for Numerical Mathematics

Russian Academy of Sciences

Gubkin str., 8

Moscow, 117333, Russia

Two problems are considered here. (1) Numerical modeling of
gaseous pollutants and aerosols in the atmosphere with
consideration for photochemical transformations in the gas- and
aqueous phases as well as aerosol formation processes due to
condensation and coagulation. These mechanisms allow one to
estimate the secondary pollution levels of the atmosphere along
with the disperse phase formation (caused both by fluctuations
and interaction with atmospheric nuclei). Here the problem is
resolved combined with the mesoscale hydrodynamics model. The
results of numerical experiments are provided for specific
problems. (2) Numerical modeling of the transport of persistent
organic pollutants in the Northern hemisphere. A representative
of POP, lindane, was used in the calculations due to availability
of European-source emission data. The transport of lindane in the
atmosphere and soil, and accumulation in water is considered. A
series of parametrization mechanisms for lindane exchange in the
atmosphere and soil is used in the model. The numerical
calculations were performed to obtain the spatial and temporal
variability of lindane in the Northern hemisphere for one year
period. The amount of lindane outgoing from the EMEP modeling
domain in the vertical and horizontal directions is estimated
along with the contribution of lindane reemision from soil as
secondary pollution source for the atmosphere.

3. "Studying High Ozone
Episodes and Their Effects on Human Health and Vegetation"

__Annemarie Bastrup-Birk__

National Environmental Research Institute

Department for Atmospheric Environment

Frederiksborgvej 399, P. O. Box 358

DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark

4. "Mixed-layer Height in
Coastal Areas - Experimental Results and Modelling"

__Ekaterina Batchvarova __

National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology

66 Tzarigradsko chaussee

Sofia 1784, Bulgaria

5. "Parallel Computation of
Air Pollution Models"

__Claus Bendtsen__

Danish Computing Centre for Research and Education

DTU, Bldg. 304

DK-2800 Lungby, Denmark

Pollution models in which all physical and chemical processes are
adequately described lead to the treatment of huge computational
tasks: in a typical simulation one has to perform several hundred
runs, each consisting of several thousand time-steps for the
numerical solution of large systems of ordinary differential
equations containing up to a million equations. This presentation
will show how parallel processing can easily be introduced into
allready existing codes with a minimum of work while still
achieving adequate performance.

6. "Real Time Predictions of
Transport and Dispersion from a Nuclear Accident"

__Joergen Brandt__

National Environmental Research Institute

Department for Atmospheric Environment

Frederiksborgvej 399, P. O. Box 358

DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark

7. "Expereiences with
Parallel Programming for Scientific Applications"

__Marian Bubak__

Institute of Computer Science, AGH

and Academic Computer Center CYFRONET

al. Mickiewicza 30

30-059 Krakow, Poland

8. "Data-assimilation and
HPCN-examples of the LOTOS-model"

__Peter Builtjes__

TNO-MEP

Department of Environmental Quality

P.O.Box 342

7300 AH Apeldoorn, The Netherlands

9. "Computational Challenges
of Modeling the Interactions between Aerosol and Gas Phase
Processes in Large Scale Air Pollution Models"

__Gregory R. Carmichael__

Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research

and Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

Iowa University,

Iowa City, Iowa 52242-1000, USA

10. "Parallel Numerical
Simulation of Air Pollution in Southern Italy"

Guido Barone, __Pasqua D'Ambra__, Daniela di Serafino, Giulio
Giunta,

Almerico Murli and Angelo Riccio

CPS (Centro di Ricerche per il Calcolo Parallelo

e i Supercalcolatori) - CNR

Via Cintia, Monte S. Angelo

80126 Napoli, Italy

In this talk we shall present a prototype of a parallel code for
the numerical simulation of the transport and photochemical
transformations of air pollutants in some areas of Southern
Italy. The air quality model is based on an Eulerian approach and
the numerical solution is performed using a time-splitting
technique that decouples advection and horizontal diffusion from
vertical diffusion and chemical reactions. The computational
environment consists of MIMD distributed-memory machines and the
parallelization is based on a domain decomposition technique.

11. "Large-scale Problems of
Transportation of Ecologically Dangerous Materials"

__Vladimir F. Demyanov__, Stanislav K. Myshkov and
V.V.Chashnikova

Applied Mathematics Dept.

St.Petersburg State University,

198904 Staryi Peterhof,

St.Petersburg, 198904, Russia

Let us consider a large system consisting of producers and
consumers of ecologically dangerous products connected in a
system by some transportation net. A finite set of products is
circulating in the system and the danger of the system is caused
by storing/production as well as the transportation of the
products in the communication net. In the present report we do
not specify the types of endangering factors (inflammability,
toxicity, explosiveness). The efficiency of functioning the
system is characterized by a large and contradictory system of
criteria describing, on the one hand, production, storage and
transportation cost, and, on the other hand, the damage
(ecological, economical etc.) caused to the environment by the
functioning the system and by possible accidents.

Mathematical statement of the problem is as follows. Assume that we have production sites (points) where dangerous products are produced and/or stored.

Given is also a matrix defining the overall amount of products available/produced at all production sites. The cost of the production of each mentioned product is known too. The cost matrix may include the investment cost, the production and storage cost etc.

The production/storage of dangerous products at each point inevitably causes ecological losses with the possibility of an accident and a damage due to the accident.

In addition, there are some points, where the dangerous product is used. In the regular case this point is the terminal consumer of the product. However, if it is a point of transhipment where the type of transportation is changed then in the mathematical model an additional production point is added to the consumer one alongside with corresponding parameters of functioning the system. Every consumer is characterized by the consumption/usage level of the proper product. For the system in general it will be a known matrix. The usage of dangerous products at a consumption point inevitably causes ecological losses, with the possibility of an accident and the damage due to the accident.

There exists an alternative transportation network which links the producers and the consumers of the products. It's assumed that different types of transportation are available (railways, highways, airplanes, pipelines etc.). Their characteristics are also taken into account. Mathematically, the transportation net may be described by different factors: - transportation costs described by corresponding matrices of the delivery costs of the measure unit of the product from a point of production to a point of consumption by the given type of transportation; - inevitable ecological losses described by the matrix of losses if the product is delivered from the producer to the consumer by the considered type of transportation; - possible damage caused by an accident characterized by the probability matrix of the accident and by the damage matrix (the cost matrix) in the case of an accident during the transportation of the product by the given type of transportation.

We define a set of matrices which describe the volume of transportation of products by the transportation network . These matrices must satisfy some inequalities due to the constraints on the volume of production of dangerous products, the consumption level and the volume of transportation.

The price of the products dispatched from each consumer, the overall damage caused by the product ramaining at the production point are local criteria of functioning the system. An analogous approach is used to describe parameters of functioning for consumers and for the transportation net. Note in passing that the functions describing the constraints as well as the local criterion functionals of the system are nonsmooth.

The problem stated is a multicriterial nonsmooth optimization problem. It's characterized by a large volume (large-scale) of computation because many local optimization problems must be solved. An interactive system "ASPID" and corresponding software are available at St. Petersburg State University for the solution of some of the above problems.

12. "Statistical Sensitivity
Tests of Air Pollution Levels to Variations of Some Chemical Rate
Constants"

__Ivan Dimov__ and Zahari Zlatev

Central Laboratory for Parallel Processing

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Acad. G. Bonchev Str. 25 A

Sofia 1113, Bulgaria

It is well known that the method of statistical simulation (or
Monte Carlo method) is a power tool in sensitivity analysis of
large-scale systems. In this work we study and apply this
statistical approach to air-pollution transport problem. It is
important to study the pollution levels on large space domains
(e.g. on space domains containing a given continent). Big
mathematical models are indispensable tools in the attempts to
determine the levels of concentrations and depositions of the
harmful air pollutants. Such models are often described by
systems of partial differential equations (the number of
equations being equal to the number of chemical species studied
by the model). Discretization and splitting techniques lead to
the solution, over thousands of time-steps, of several very large
systems of ordinary differential equations. It is not uncommon
that each of these systems contain several millions equations.
This means that the computational tasks arising in the treatment
of large-scale air pollution models are enormous, and great
difficulties arises even when modern high-speed computers are
used. Therefore, it is highly desirable to simplify as much as
possible the model. A careful sensitivity analysis is needed in
order to decide where and how simplifications can be made.

In this topic the first step in a procedure, related to the sensitivity of the concentrations and depositions to variations of certain chemical rate constants, is described. A simple box model has been used in these tests. After that a big mathematical model for studying air pollution levels in Europe, the Danish Eulerian Model, has been used to study quantitatively the effect of varying the selected chemical rate constant to the concentrations of the two most involved chemical species in different parts in Europe. A Monte Carlo technique has been used in these tests. The results show that the variations of the concentrations in different parts of Europe are different, although the variations of the rate constant were the same at all grid-points in the space domain.

Key words: air pollution levels, mathematical models, partial differential equations, ordinary differential equations, sensitivity tests, statistical simulations

13. "Enabling Technologies
for High Performance Computing"

__Jack Dongarra__

University of Tennessee and

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

104 Ayres Hall

Knoxville TN, 37996, USA

14. "Long Range Dispersion
Modeling in the Aftermath of the Chernobyl Accident: Conclusions
of ETEX"

__Han van Dop __

Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht

P.O. box 80.005 3508 TA Utrecht The Netherlands

Buijs Ballot Laboratorium

Princetonplein 5

Utrecht, De Uithof, The Netherlands

15. "Parallel 4D-variational
Data Assimilation for a Eulerian Chemistry Transport Model"

__Hendrik Elbern__

Institute for Geophysics and Meteorology (EURAD)

University of Cologne

Albertus Magnus Plat

50923 Koeln, Germany

16. "Large Scale Air
Pollution Control Problems"

__Juri Ermoliev__

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis

A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria

The talk is concerned with the development of economic
instruments for the air pollution control on a regional level
with multiple sources, receptors and ambient standards.
Optimization decomposition techniques are discussed which can be
viewed as a decentralized search of emission charges, and
emission permit trading procedures. Special attention is paid to
the treatment of uncertainties and incomplete information.

17. "Approaches for
Correcting the Numerical Solution of the Advection Equation"

__Michael Galperin__

Department of Biophysics, Radiation Physics and Ecology,

Moscow Physical - Engineering Institute,

Studencheskaya street,31-9,

Moscow, 121165, Russia

The advection schemes differ in the methods of approximation of
concentration profile with respect to the masses in cells. It
seems that accuracy can be improved by application of high order
approximation. However, in the reality, many factors do not allow
to implement this approach. Some of the reasons are:

1. In order to use the remote points concentrations in approximating the concentration in the calculation point the existence of high order derivatives must be assured. In fact, this condition does not take place. Moreover, factors like atmospheric fronts, precipitation and pollution sources produce discontinuities in the concentration fields. As a result, approximations of orders more than 3 or 4 accomplish nothing and even can impair the situation.

2. When we approximate the concentration, the mass in the cell differs in general from its predetermined value. This circumstance is not taken into account in many schemes or it is overcome by introducing rather crude normalization, limitations, etc.

In this study, outgoing from the above reasoning, some schemes meeting the conflicting requirements of accuracy and computer resource economy are presented. In the first scheme called "self-normalising flux scheme", low order polynomial approximation of mass distribution is applied. It is shown that mass-in-cell conservation is the necessary and sufficient condition for concentration profile restoration and, further on, for flux calculation. In the second scheme, the first order moment of mass-in-cell distribution is calculated. Initially, the mass is evenly distributed inside cell onto maximum area at the known mass centre. Further on, the transport and the redistribution of this mass do not depend on masses in the other cells and the new values of mass and its first moment are obtained by superposition.

These schemes are put to comparative testing together with the well known schemes of Egan & Mahoney and Bott, with Holmgren's modification of MacCormack's scheme (4th order in space and 2nd order in time) and with the simplest pseudo-Lagrangian scheme. These tests show that the accuracy of the presented schemes is as good as the one of the best of known advection models. However, the presented schemes are many times faster than the other ones.

18. "Application of Parallel
Algorithms in an Air Pollution Model"

__Krassimir Georgiev__ and Zahari Zlatev

Central Laboratory for Parallel Processing

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Acad. G. Bonchev Str. 25 A

Sofia 1113, Bulgaria

One of the most important tasks has to be solved in the modern
society is to find reliable and robust control strategies for
keeping the pollution under certain safe levels and to use these
strategies in a routine way. Large mathematical models, in which
all physical and chemical processes are adequately described, in
cooperation with the modern high-performance computers can
successfully be used to solve this task. One such a model is the
Danish Eulerian Model developed in the National Environmental
Research Institute in Roskilde, Denmark.

The size of the computational task obtained after the appropriate splitting and discretization procedures of the system of partial differential equations describing the phenomenon is enormous and even when the computers with several GFlops top performance are in use, it is difficult to solve this problem efficiently and moreover, to prepare codes which may be used for operating purposes in estimating the pollution levels in different parts in Europe.

A new algorithm for implementation of the Danish Eulerian Model on parallel computers, both with distributed and shared memory, is discussed in this paper. The algorithm is based on partitioning of the computational domain in several subdomains. The number of the subdomains is equal to the number of the processors which are available. The splitting procedure used in the model is a splitting according to the different physical processes that are involved in it. As different numerical algorithms are used in the different submodels to types of subdomains are used: overlapping - into the advection-diffusion submodels and nonoverlapping - into the chemistry-deposition submodels.

Numerical results obtained for an important module of the model (a transport-reaction scheme) on the parallel computer with distributed memory IBM SP (up to 32 processors) and the parallel computer with shared memory SGI POWER CHALLENGE (up to 16 processors) as well as concluding remarks explaining how the performance could be further improved are presented.

19. "Numerical Library
Software for Large Scale Computations"

__Sven Hammarling__

Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd.

Wilkinson House, Jordan Hill Road

Oxford, OX2 8DR, United Kingdom

20. "Aerosol Modeling within
the EURAD Model System:

Developments and Applications"

__Heinz Hass__

Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen

Dennewartstr. 25

52068 Aachen, Germany

21. "The Influence of Lateral
Boundary Values

on the Calculation of Future Ozone ond

Ozone Precursor Concentrations

in a Regional Photochemistry Model

__Jan Eiof Jonson__

he Norwegian Meteorological Institute

P.O. Box 43 Blindern

N-0313 Oslo, Norway

22. "The Regional Weather
Forecasting Models as Predictive Tools for Major Environmental
Disasters and Natural Hazards

__George Kallos__, S. Nickovic, A. Papadopoulos and O.
Kakaliagou

Dept of Applied Physics

Meteorology Lab.

Panepistimioupolis, Bldg. PHYS-V

Athens 15784, Greece

Today, with the present status of the computer technology, there
is sufficient cmputer power for running regional weather
forecasting models covering the regional and even the mesoscale
portion of the spectrum of the atmospheric disturbances. The cost
of purchasing the necessary computer power is affordable from
most of the weather services. A number of RISC nodes ranging from
4 to 16 are considered as sufficient for regional/mesoscale
forecasts for up to three days. Most of these models are able to
accurately describe the ignition and evolution of extreme weather
phenomena such as storms, heat waves etc. The output of these
models should be further utilized for a series of other
applications such as prediction or follow-up of huge
environmental catastrophes (e.g. explosion of a nuclear reactor),
prediction of sea waves, dispersion of oil spills, etc.
Dispersion processes can be also included in real time
simulations (e.g. non-reactive pollutants, desert dust,
radioactive material). Photochemical processes require more
computer power and of course, more memory. These requirements
cannot be easily covered in most of the operational places today.
The limitations are mainly due to the cost of purchasing the
necessary computer power.

In this presentation, the Regional Weather Forecasting System SKIRON is presented and its capability to forecast extreme weather events or huge environmental catastrophes is discussed. The SKIRON system has been developed at the University of Athens and is based on the Eta/NCEP model. It is been used operationally at the Hellenic National Meteorological Service for regular 48-hour forecasts. The system is currently capable to aacurately predict extreme weather phenomena, dispersion of any passive scalar from predefined sources and dust uptake and transport. It is running in almost any parallel machine utilizing MPI.

23. "Variable Scale Modelling
of Air Pollution Transport (Telescopic Method)"

__Vladimir K. Kouznetsov__, V. B. Kisselev and V. B. Milyaev

Institute of Atmospheric Protection

7, Karbisheva str.

St Petersburg, Russia

At present acidification of soils and lakes takes place almost in
all areas of Europe due to great SO2 and NOx emissions and
transboundary transport of these substances.

The evaluaton of this process (in the frame of international Program EMEP) is made by Meteorological Synthesizing Centres West (Oslo) and East (Moscow) on microscale level (150x150 km) and is considered as official for the most European countries.

These data are also used in other international projects (for example HELKOM). On the base of these data the ecologo-economic scenarios of emission reduction have been created. At the same time the spatial distribution of emission sources is irregular and therefore it is necessary to have more detailed information, that is the evaluation of transboundary pollution on larger scale levels (for example, the evaluation of transboundary pollution from one region to others inside one country). Evidently in this case, the co-ordination between results of varying scale modelling is required.

The application of such approach may be illustrated by the case study in Karelia, which is situated in the North-West part of Russia. The territory covers 15 EMEP qrid cells (150x150km). For the calculations with a finer resolution it was divided into 540 smaller cells (25x25km)and for this area one-level climatic mesoscale model of Lagrangian-Eulerian tipe was used, which is similar to models, used in MSC-W. The main feature of our model is the use of climatological characteristics of the considered region as input variables and the following statistical generation of the fields of meteorological elements, simulating in this way the real conditions of pollutant transport. It allows to avoid dealing with the huge amount of input meteorological data for the estimation of pollution levels.

With a help of this model SO2 and NOx depositions have been estimated from the emission sourses which are situated inside of estimated area of Karelia with spatial resolution 25x25km. It is "internal deposition" of SO2 and NOx and it varied from 12 to 1912 mgS/m2 and from 0 to 6 mgN/m2 in 1996. Conseqnently, the "external deposition" of SO2 and NOx is the difference between total deposition (EMEP data, 1996) and average internal deposition in Karelia. It varied from 140 to 711 mgS/m2 and from 97 to 252 mgN/m2 in 1996.

Thus, there is opportunity to determine the share of external and internal influences for different regions. It is very important becouse it enables:

a) to determine the areas in the region, where external deposition are more than the values of critical load. In this case, the reduction of its own emissions in the region can not liquidate acidification.

b) to determine the areas in the region where the exceedances of total depositions above critical loads are conditioned mostly by internal depositions. In this case, it is necessary to create the emission reduction scenarios for specific sources to lequidate exceedances.

Finaly, the telescopic method allows to determine the different levels of ecological responsibility for pollution in some territories - country, region, city, plant and so on.

24. "Adjoint Equations and
Application to Problems of Global Change"

__Guri I. Marchuk __

Institute for Numerical Mathematics

Russian Academy of Sciences

Gubkin str., 8

Moscow, 117333, Russia

The development of science and technology demand the solution of
extremely complex problems and construction of adequate
mathematical models. First of all it concerns the problems of
climate global change, environment protection, human health, etc.
Enormous diversity of input data and regions of the planet
assumes the introduction of numerous phenomenological
parametrizations whose justification is often insufficient
because parametrized phenomena are very complex. Sometimes it is
efficient to consider some functionals of solutions of a problem
instead of the very solutions. These functionals can filter out
possible noises and characterize to some extent the solutions of
the problem. The sensitivity of functionals makes it possible to
correlate the functionals of processes being modelled and
actually observed in nature.

Here, using the principal and adjoint equations, we consider the global transport of pollutants in the atmosphere. Numerical experiments were performed for different regions of the Earth. Based on the adjoint functions, special functionals were constructed characterizing the total amount of pollutants in specific regions. In so doing, the adjoint function is a weighing function allowing one to determine the contribution of pollution sources in given regions.

Besides, the transboundary transport of sulfur-containing air pollutants in different European regions is simulated using adjoint functions. The pollution considered here results from emissions both in the region itself and transported from other countries or regions.

25. "Modelling of The
Long-term Atmospheric Transport of Heavy Metals Over Poland"

Andrzej Mazur

Meteorology Centre,

Institute of Meteorology and Water Management

Podlesna 61

PL-01-673 Warszawa, Poland

The theoretical basis, the evolution and the results of long-term
(1991-1995) runs of a regional model for atmospheric transport of
four heavy metals: As, Cd, Pb and Zn over Polish territory are
described in this presentation. The model represents an Eulerian,
three-dimensional approach to the atmospherical transport
described by an ordinary advection-diffusion scheme. It consists
of three main modules, the first sets parameters of the model
(i.e. local deposition coefficient, washout ratios, dry
deposition velocities etc.), the second applies the
advection-diffusion solver and the last prepares output files for
graphical presentation and statistical analysis. The equations
are solved using the Area Flux Preserving method (advection) and
a Gaussian elimination method - modified (diffusion). The dry
deposition velocity was assumed a function of roughness height,
friction velocity and diameter of a particle according to
Sehmel's model. In turn, washout ratio was assumed constant in
this model. To create an appropriate data base for emissions in
Poland the heavy metal emissions from Polish sources for 1991-95
were collected and compiled.

26. "A Parallel Iterative
Scheme for Solving the Convection Diffusion Equation on
Distributed Memory Processors"

L. A. Boukas and __Nikolaos M. Missirlis__

Department of Informatics

University of Athens

Panepistimiopolis 15710

Athens, Greece

In this paper we consider the numerical solution of the
Convection Diffusion equation. We propose the local Modified SOR
method and apply Fourier analysis to study its convergence.
Parallelism is introduced by decoupling the mesh points with the
use of red-black ordering for the 5-point stencil. Optimum set of
values for the parameters involved are determined. It is found
that the perfomance of the proposed method is significantly more
efficient than other iterative methods. Finally, the parallel
implementation of the local MSOR method is discussed and results
are presented for distributed memory processors with a mesh
topology.

27. "Theory, Algorithms and
Software Systems of Bayesian Heuristic Approach for Optimization
of Large Scale Discrete or Continuous Models"

__Jonas Mockus__

Department of Optimization

Institute of Mathematics and Informatics

Akademijos 4

Vilnius 2600, Lithuania

Solving big optimization problems in connection with the
distribution of new economical objects the efficient methods of
global and discrete optimization are needed as usual. Discrete
optimization problems are often solved using
"heuristics" (expert opinions defining how to solve a
family of problems). The paper is about ways to speed up the
search by combining several heuristics involving randomization.
Using expert knowledge an it a priori distribution of
optimization results as functions of heuristic decision rules is
defined and is continuously updated while solving a particular
problem. This approach (BHA or Bayesian Heuristic Approach) is
different from the traditional Bayesian Approach (BA) where the
{\it a priori} distribution is defined on a set of functions to
be minimized.

The paper focuses on the main objective of BHA that is improving any given heuristic by "mixing" it with other decision rules. In addition to providing almost sure convergence such mixed decision rules often outperform (in terms of speed) even the best heuristics as judged by the considered examples. However, the final results of BHA depend on the quality of the specific heuristic. That means the BHA should be regarded as a tool for enhancing the best heuristics but not for replacing them.

The paper is concluded by a short discussion of Dynamic Visualization Approach (DVA). The goal of DVA is to exploit heuristics directly, bypassing any formal mathematical framework.

The purpose of the paper is to inform the authors inventing and applying various heuristics and about the possibilities and limitations of BHA hoping that they will improve their heuristics using this powerful tool.

28. "Parallel Algorithms for
Large-Scale Location Problems in Environmental Modeling"

__Panos M. Pardalos__

Center for Applied Optimization

Industrial and Systems Engineering Department

303 Weil Hall, University of Florida

Gainesville, FL 32611-6595, USA

29. "On Air Pollution
Monitoring (Case Study)"

__Tamas Rapcsak__

-------------

Laboratory of Operations Research and Decision Systems

Computer and Automation Research Institute,

Hungarian Academy of Sciences

H-1518 Budapest, P.O. Box 63, Hungary

30. "Neural, Fuzzy Modelling
in Pollution, an Interesting Alternative to Other Procedures: An
Overview and PC Illustrations of Some Experiments"

Mariana Bistran and __Gheorghe M. Sandulescu__

Department of Advanced Research

ASTEIDA University

Bucharest, Romania

31. "Advanced Operational Air
Quality Forecasting Models for Urban and Regional Environments in
Europe: Madrid application"

__R. San Jose__, M. A. Rodriguez, M. A. Arranz,

I. Moreno and R. M. Gonzalez

Environmental Software and Modelling Group

Computer Science School - Technical University of Madrid

Campus de Montegancedo - Boadilla del Monte-28660

Madrid, Spain

32. "Adaptive Approximation
with Fractal Functions"

__Blagovest Sendov__

Central Laboratory for Parallel Processing

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Acad. G. Bonchev Str. 25 A

Sofia 1113, Bulgaria

The classical orthonormal systems of Walsh and Haar are
generalized in a new direction, different from these already
well-known [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]. This generalization involves
real parameters and allow adaptation of the orthonormal system to
a particular function by appropriate choice of this parameters.
The generalized Walsh and Haar functions may have any given
fractal dimension.

The motivation for this generalization is the application for signal and image compression, which is an approximation problem for non smooth functions, resembling fractals.

The quality of the adapted approximation of real signals and images by generalized Walsh and Haar functions is compared with some classical methods for approximation.

1. Chrestenson, H. E. (1955): A
Class of Generalized Walsh Functions. Pacific J. Math., 5, 17 -
31.

2. Fine, N. J. (1950): The Generalized Walsh Functions. Trans.
Am. Math. Soc., 69, 66 - 77.

3. Levy, P. (1944): Sur une generalisation des fonctions
orthogonales de M. Rademacher. Comm. Math. Helv., 16, 146 - 152.

4. Redinbo, G. R. (1971): A Note on the Construction of
Generalized Walsh Functions}. SIAM J. Math. Anal., 2 (3), 166 -
167.

5. Watari, C. (1958): On Generalized Walsh Fourier Series. Tohoku
Math. J., 10 (2), 211 - 241.

33. "A Preliminary
Investigation of Soils, Oceans and Atmosphere Enrichment by
Persistent Volatile Pollutants"

__Mikhail Sofiev__

Institute of Program Systems

Russian Academy of Science

Moscow, Russia

One of important features of many toxic pollutants like mercury
and persistent organic compounds is their high evaporation
capability. Their lifetimes in the environment are much longer
than those of sulphur and nitrogen compounds. Depending upon the
atmospheric conditions these substances can be deposited,
accumulated in ecosystems and then come back to the long-range
transport. These cycles are accompanied by slow degradation
process of some of these substances. As a result, initial
emission of such species affects not only one-two years after the
release but also makes significant impact to a long-term toxic
pollution. The key role in such a cycle plays a process of
secondary emission of previously deposited masses (so-called
re-emission). The investigation of this effect is rather
complicated because re-emission of the pollutants can easily be
treated as a natural emission during the measurement campaign.
The analysis of the pollution history is available only with
mathematical models. Current experiment was aimed at development
of adequate model and preliminary studying of the accumulation of
persistent pollutants and analysis of the its sensitivity to
chemical transformation rates and re-emission / fixation
intensities applied in the model. The model is based on the
Eulerian multi-layer transport routine with capabilities to
consider soil and water layers below the surface. Available
meteorological information and model structure enable to carry
out continuos calculations over the Northern Hemisphere for the
time period of more than 20 years. The first run made for mercury
has shown that multi-annual accumulation of the pollutants in the
environment may cause the air concentrations comparable with
those observed at monitoring stations. After several years of
model simulations the dynamic equilibrium between the income of
antropogenic mercury and its removing from the transport cycle
was observed. Two main processes of the mercury removing were
detected. The first one is the fixation of the deposited
substances in soils. The second one is transport outside the
model domain (which is purely artificial effect connected with
the limited area of calculations).

34. "The Future of Chemical
Mechanism Development for Air Pollution Models: Chemistry,
Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis"

__William R. Stockwell__

Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric Environmental Research (IFU)

Kreuzeckbahnstr. 19

82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany

35. "On Some Flux-type
Advection Schemes for Dispersion Modelling Application"

__Dimiter Syrakov__

National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology

66 Tzarigradsko chaussee

Sofia 1784, Bulgaria

The description of advection processes still keep to be a real
challenge for tracer dispersion calculations. Recently, the most
exploited numerical scheme is the Bott's one (Bott, 1989). The
Bott scheme is a flux type one: it is explicit, positively
definite and conservative with limited numerical dispersion and
good transportability. The main feature of Bott's approach is the
normalization of mass fluxes when calculating the one step
increase (decrease) of mass in cell. The flux is presented as a
product of the concentration and the ratio between the mass in
the flux (one time step passage) and mass in the cell. Bott
calculates masses by integrating the polynomial which
interpolates the concentration over the nearest points. Best
results are obtained using a 4th order polynomial and the pattern
points are symmetric according to the center of the cell. As a
result, 3 points at domain border are necessary as boundary ones.

The advection scheme TRAP (from TRAPezium) was elaborated especially for the Bulgarian dispersion model EMAP, which is 3D, PC-oriented Eulerian multi-layer model. The scheme was presented at the first REMAPE Workshop (Syrakov, 1997). In the TRAP scheme, the flux area is supposed trapezoidal. Instead of integrating, the flux is determined as a product of Courant number and a single value of the approximating polynomial, taken in the middle of the passed distance. The same 4th order polynomial is used in TRAP. Bott's normalization is also applied. Displaying the same properties as Bott's scheme, the TRAP-scheme turns out to be several times faster.

Some faster variants of Bott and TRAP schemes are presented here using interpolation polynomials of smaller order. They show almost the same quality of transport description as the Bott and TRAP schemes. Another important advantage of the new versions is the fact that they need only two grid points at the borders of the model doma in as boundary ones.

Principally new schemes are elaborated, performing self-normalization instead of Bott's one. Integrated flux and TRAP-flux aproaches are used estimating the mass fluxes through the edges of the cell. These schemes are also presented and tested.

Bott A., 1989: A positive definite
advection scheme obtained by nonlinearrenormalization of the
advective fluxes, Mon.Wea.Rev., 117, 1006-1015.

Syrakov D.(1997), On the TRAP advection scheme - Description,
tests and applications, in Geernaert G., A.Walloe-Hansen and
Z.Zlatev <Eds.>, Regional Modelling of Air Pollution in
Europe. Proceedings of the first REMAPE Workshop, Copenhagen,
Denmark, September 1996, National Environmental Research
Institute, Denmark, 141-152.

36. "The Use of 3-D Adaptive
Unstructured Meshes in Air Pollution Modelling"

__Alison Tomlin__

Dept of Fuel and Energy

University of Leeds

Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom

37. "Atmospheric
Environmental Management Expert System for an Oil-fired Power
Plant"

__Eloy A. Unzalu__

Environmental Laboratory

LABEIN, Technological Research Centre

Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain.

The Atmospheric Environmental Management Expert System, actually
in operation in a 1,000 MW Power Plant, reckons in real time the
atmospheric impact caused by the Power Plant in the affected
urban area, an estuarine valley and industrial zone by the
Atlantic Ocean, in the bay of Biscay and located in a complex
terrain.

The expert system is based on a real time reception of meterological and atmospheric pollutant emission data, which are used to automatically select the most appropiate meteorological and dispersion models from the set implemented in the system, and to execute them in order to estimate the atmospheric impact caused by SO2.

It includes the automatic calculation of dispersion parameters such as atmospheric stability, heigh of mixed layer etc, by means of advanced methods implemented in the software. On the other hand, and along the project, the meteorological and dispersion models of the software have been calibrated and the results validated through four multidisciplinary experimental campaigns covering both meteorological and pollutant measurements in the area.

38. "Collaborative Air
Pollution Modeling"

__Emanuel Vavalis__

Purdue University, Computer Science Department,

West Lafayette, IN 47 907 USA

and Institute for Applied and Computational Mathematics

Foundation for Research and Development Hellas

711 10 Heraklion, Crete, Greece

39. "Applied SMP Parallel
Computing to Air Pollution Models"

Bjarne S. Andersen, Krassimir Georgiev, __Jerzy Wasniewski__
and Zahari Zlatev

Danish Computing Centre for Research and Education

DTU, Bldg. 304

DK-2800 Lungby, Denmark

40. "Automatically from a
Model Specification to Fortran Programs"

__Lex Wolters__

Computer and Software Systems Division

Dept. of Computer Science, Leiden University

P.O. Box 9512, 2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands

41. "Including of Surface
Source in SL Parameterization"

__Dimiter Yordanov__ and Dimiter Syrakov

Geophysical Institute

Bulagarian Academy of Sciences

Sofia 1113, Bulgaria

Recently, a great number of dispersion models have been
developed. They possess different features and need different
computer resources. Meanwhile, the PC-oriented Eulerian
multi-layer model EMAP was developed and applied to different
pollution problems. The vertical diffusion block of the model
uses a 2nd order implicit scheme including dry deposition as a
bottom boundary condition, realised on a non-homogeneous
staggered grid. The experiments with EMAP show that, if the
concentration at the first computational level is used for
calculation of the dry deposition flux, the deposited quantity
changes when the height of the level is changed. Obviously, the
roughness level concentration is necessary for the proper
calculation of the dry deposition. It is not possible to have a
model level at this height, because roughness usually changes
from one grid point to another. On the other hand, because of the
steep gradients in SL, many levels have to be introduced for its
good description. Thus, the memory and time requirements would
increase without any practical need. For this reason, the first
computational level is usually placed at some height above the
roughness. That is why, a good estimate for the roughness level
concentration is necessary, determined on the grounds of the
calculated concentrations. The problem becomes more complex when
a surface pollution source is treated. Similar processes are
those of evaporation and re-emission of the tracer under
consideration.

A proper parametrization of the diffusion processes in the surface layer can avoid these difficulties. A parametrization, based on the similarity theory and taking into account the presence of continuous surface source, is presented. It is adjusted for the implicit diffusion scheme. The parametrization is tested under various conditions, both for single source and for a combination of surface and high sources. The tests confirm its good quality. Concentration profiles and dry deposited mass are described adequately by a grid with practically no levels in the surface layer.

42. "Long-term Calculations
Performed by the Danish Eulerian Model"

Annemarie Bastrup-Birk, Joergen Brandt and __Zahari Zlatev__

National Environmental Research Institute

Department for Atmospheric Environment

Frederiksborgvej 399, P. O. Box 358

DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark

The Danish Eulerian Model has been run over a time-period of
seven years, from 1989 to 1995. Results concerning the
distribution, in Europe, of sulphur pollutants, nitrogen
pollutants, ozone and ammonia-ammonium pollutants will be
reported. The main objective of this paper will be the
demonstration of the influence of the reductions of the European
emissions in the seven-year period, 1989-1995, on the
concentrations and the depositions of studied pollutants. Some
other issues, such as the need to use big supercomputers and to
handle huge input and output files, will also be discussed.

This page is maintained by *Annemarie Bastrup-Birk *,
*Jørgen Brandt*, *Helge Rørdam Olesen* and *Zahari Zlatev** *

Document date: May 26, 1998